We all have preconceived ideas about the world. Whether as a result of our upbringing or life experiences certain things will always hold more negative or positive connotations than others.
We may not like red cars, associating them with being too fast or loud and we may love the actor Tom Hanks, associating him with a favorite childhood movie. These impressions are based solely on our cultural context and past experiences. People are also not “open books” and may not wish to reveal certain thoughts or behaviors.
If a lifestyle questionnaire asks us how much exercise we get per week for example, it may be tempting to portray ourselves as less sedentary than we are. It’s easy to remain blissfully unaware of these preconceptions or biases, and it’s difficult to pinpoint them in others since they are so often subconscious.
The associations we have move beyond inanimate objects! People also attribute negative or positive attributes to groups of people.
This is not surprising as we are all aware that racism and discrimination exist. What is surprising is the extent people go to hide these biases even when they are innately inherent.
Is there a way to circumvent these barriers to comprehensive and accurate data collection? The Implicit Association Test (IAT), developed in 1998, is one solution proposed by scientists.
What is the IAT?
The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a psychological test designed to measure “implicit attitudes”. These are the underlying by-products of past experience that influence how we feel about something.
These factors may include cognitive processes such as self-esteem, memory, perception and attitudes among others. These cognitive processes are always present in the background of our subconscious even when we are not aware of them.
The IAT is designed to reveal the automatic associations we hold between concepts (e.g. light and dark,) and attributes (e.g. good or bad) by asking the participant to rapidly pair concepts and associated constructs. The participant is given little time to fully process their decision, instead relying on gut reaction and subconscious associations. In this manner, according to the creator of the psychological test, the IAT provides a “window” into our thought processes.
The IAT has become a phenomenon both in terms of scientific research and in capturing the public imagination. It has been written about in countless media publications and used to inform public debate and discussion. This is because the IAT is viewed as providing a direct link with the subconscious. It has also been proposed as a means to untangle racial discrimination and bias within the justice system. Stating that it directly reflects the subconscious is a bold claim and there has been some debate over whether the IAT measures precisely what it claims to.
Some studies have found that participants are accurately able to predict their score on the IAT, indicating that we may to some extent already be aware of the biases the IAT claims to highlight. Studies have found however, that the IAT has good internal reliability and consistency across a range of populations. The IAT also measures implicit associations more accurately than self-reports. You can read about the findings of the study here.
So how can IAT be utilized in biometric research and how can it work for you?
How it works
In its most basic computerized form, the IAT requires the user to categorize two concepts with an attribute, as quickly as they possibly can.
For example, you may be asked to choose one of the concepts “young” or “old” to pair with the attribute “foolish”. IAT proposes that the quicker the respondent pairs the concept and attribute, the stronger the internal association. These associations are known as the aforementioned “implicit attitudes”. Psychologists have theorized that our implicit attitudes influence many cognitive processes such as memory, perception and development of stereotypes.
As IAT is conducted by the individual privately and rapidly, it is proposed that it may shed light on beliefs that people are normally unwilling to discuss. This may bypass research difficulties such as social desirability bias or acquiescence bias. These are biases that have long affected the accuracy and validity of many research methods such as interview methods and self-report. Read about the different types of bias here.
What is the advantage of IAT?
Let’s take a look at an example:
Traditionally, when looking to ascertain an individual’s beliefs regarding a particular brand, the go-to method would be to supply an anonymous survey or conduct a face-to-face interview.
Whilst many surveys are well-validated and a survey is a highly economic research method, it certainly has some shortcomings. Individuals may conceal or edit answers due to different forms of bias (see above), lack of insight and self-enhancement.
Quite simply, they may be too polite to risk offending the researcher or not want to give too much away about their personal beliefs! In addition, sometimes we simply do not realize that we possess certain beliefs or attitudes. It can be difficult to accurately analyze your own belief systems to a point where you can objectively state your deep-held associations. In fact, this is a nearly impossible feat. As IAT does not ask the subject a direct question, it enables the researcher to bypass many of these biases.
In addition, the IAT is available as easy-to-use software, making it a convenient and cost-effective alternative to traditional means.
Taking IAT to the next level
iMotions runs the IAT task through our partnership with Qualtrics – the world-leader in survey presentation (this can also be done through the iMotions API). This partnership enables us to provide complex presentation techniques such as randomization of stimuli and feedback on responses.
Furthermore, this tool provides highly detailed information such as IAT reaction time and accuracy. Such specific data grants an unparalleled insight into your respondent’s reaction to stimuli.
If you are looking to take this design a step further, iMotions presentation can synchronize IAT with biometric measures such as eye tracking and GSR.
When it comes to completing the task, iMotions IAT provides subjects with clear instructions on how to complete each block. This is important for a task which requires rounds of rapid responses.
Check out the image below for a sample of our instructional display:
In terms of the format the tasks take, the IAT typically consists of five blocks in which subjects have to categorize a word or image which appears in the middle of the screen using a designated button.
In iMotions, each screen is captured as its own still image “scene,” which is useful for creating aggregated heat maps.
Further, markers are automatically pulled into the system to note when subjects pressed a key, and which key they pressed:
Note that there are a number of variations of this task, varying across categories such as race, weight, sexuality, gender, and even socioeconomic status. Within iMotions, you can simply change the variation by changing the text and/or images presented in the Qualtrics design.
IAT is a really interesting new research method, which can provide a range of new possibilities for those looking to conduct research exploring attitudes and beliefs. If you would like to know more, why not read this detailed exploration of IAT by its creator.
This new avenue is certainly worth reading up on and considering as a new research angle.