Optimization of menu-labeling formats to drive healthy dining: An eye tracking study

Abstract: This study examines customers’ visual attention when choosing food and beverage items of a fast-food menu. Three formats on menu labeling were examined, including numeric, color-coded, and physical activity-based formats. An experimental choice paradigm combined with eye tracking technology explored customers’ visual attention, preferences for format, and menu choices. The study revealed that customers increased visual attention and chose healthier selections when viewing physical activity-based labeling, and customers preferred physical activity-based formats over numeric or color-coded labeling. Overall, the physical activity-based labeling on calorie information app to be the most effective format for inducing healthy choices. This study provides important implications for industry practitioners to effectively utilize menu labeling to improve customers’ awareness of healthy eating options.


  • Menu labeling
  • Labeling format
  • Physical activity-based format
  • Healthy eating choices
  • Visual attention
  • Eye tracking

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